The amphibian and reptile fauna of Bali is a combination of species associated with the humid tropical habitats of southeast Asia and species associated with the drier environments of eastern Indonesia and New Guinea. The fauna comprises 14 species of frogs and 57 species of land reptiles, plus marine species. Mostly these species are part of the sout heast Asian assemblage, and for many Bali is the eastern limit of their range. Is- lands further east become increasingly dry, and the sea barrier between Bali and Lombok is far wider than the strait between Bali and Java. A smaller proportion of the fauna is associated with the seasonally dry habitats of the Lesser Sundas and New Guinea. These include the Montane Chorus Frog (Oreophryne monticola), the Blue-tailed Snake—eyed Skink (Cryptoblepharus renschi), and Taylor’s Oriental Burrowing Lizard (Dibamus taylori). The Montane Chorus Frog is the westernmost occurring of the genus Oreophryne, and is found only on Bali and Lombok . There are no species endemic to Bali alone. In comparison to nearby islands, such as Borneo and Sulawesi, Bali has relatively few amphibian species, as do Lombok and the Lesser Sundas. This is mainly due to the limited amount and variety of water available. Although good rain falls during the hotter months, there is little flat land where water can accumulate, and most of the streams are fast and shallow. In the driest areas, the west, northeast coast, Tanjung Bukit, and Nusa Penida, streams run only during heavy downpours and rapidly dry out. Few frogs exist in these areas, and Ba1i’s frog fauna consists mainly of forest stream—dwellers and hardy generalists that can take advantage of the rice fields. The area with the greatest richness of species is also the area of highest rainfall, the central mountains. Similarly, there is little suitable habitat for fresh- water tortoises on Bali, and only two species are recorded, the Asian Leaf Turtle (Cyclemys dentata) and the Southeast Asian Softshell Turtle (Amyda cartilczginecz). Both are very rare. The marine turtles of Bali occur throughout the region. All are scarce in Balinese waters due to a history of intensive hunting. Nesting occurs occasionally where there are suitable sandy beaches, and most often at Peranca, near Negara. The most nests recorded are those of Olive Ridleys (Lepidochelys olivacea), followed by Green Turtles (Chelonia mydos). Other species nest less often and Leatherbacks (Dermochelys coriacea) are recorded about once a year. With the ban on turtle trading, numbers are expected to increase, however; as it takes 13 to 30 years to reach breeding age there will be a long time lag before the effects of conservation measures taken now show in the populations’ numbers. The lizards of Bali are mainly small insectivores, and include the Great Crested Canopy Lizard (Bronchocela jubata), which has the ability to regenerate the slender part of its long rigid tail, used for balance and support when climbing in the trees. The of the skink genus Cryptoblepharus is higher on Bali than on Java (3 vs. 2 species), possibly reflecting their preference for ‘ seasonally dry habitats; however, further work on Java may uncover additional species. Three species of gliding lizards (genus Draco) are recorded from the island. Of these, two are known only from old literature and their presence is unconfirmed. The Asian Water Monitor (Varonus salvator) is much larger than any other lizards on the island, and has the significant role of scavenger and predator of smaller animals, including the young of large mammals. The snakes are the most diverse group of reptiles and amphibians on Bali. Species associated with the wetter habitats of south- east Asia comprise the majority, followed by species associated with the seasonally dry environments of eastern Indonesia and New Guinea. There are also wide—ranging coastal species such as the Bockadam (Cerberus rynchops) and Little File Snake (Acrochordus grcmulutus). Two species are found only in seasonally dry open woodlands, which on Bali and Java are isolated remnants of the habitat type that dominated the early part of their history 1 to 3 million years ago. These are the Burmese Python (Python molurus) and the Indo-Chinese Sand Snake (Psammophis condonarus). Sea snakes and sea kraits are the most poorly known of the fauna. No records exist specifically for Bali other than the Yellow- lipped Sea Krait (Laticaudu colubrina). The species in the Appendix are recorded mostly from the literature and comprise species which are found throughout the sou theast Asian region, species occuring in central Indonesia, and species recorded from northeast Java. The sea north of Bali is up to twice as deep as the sea northeast of Java, and it may support entirely different sea snake species. The group presented here are diverse in their preferred habitats and prey. The Yellow-bellied Sea Snake (Pelamis platurus) feeds on the surface and may travel widely in open seas. Some species inhabiting coral reefs have small heads for capturing gobies and eels in burrrows and holes, such as the Narrow-headed Sea Snake (Hydrophis gracilis). The Beaded Sea Snake (Aipysurus eydouxii) feeds entirely on fish eggs. The Beaked Sea Snake (Enhydrina schistosa) prefers muddy estuarine waters, where it on gobies and catfish.